Today there are many different kinds of colleges and universities. Most of them are made up of smaller schools that deal with special fields of learning. There's so much to learn that one kind of school can' offer it all.
5．From the second paragraph, we can see that in the early years, ______.
A．those colleges and universities were almost the same
B．people, young or old, might study in the colleges
C．the students studied only some languages and science
D．when the students finished their school, they became lawyers or teachers
6．As knowledge increased, colleges began to teach ______.
A．everything that was known
B．law and something about medicine
C．many new subjects
D．the subjects that interested students
7．On the whole, the passage is about ______.
A．how to start a university
B．the world-famous colleges in America
C．how colleges have changed
D．what kind of lessons each college teaches
Whenever we see a button, we are eager to press it because we know something will happen. This is true in most cases, for example on a doorbell and on the "on/off" button on the TV. But some buttons are actually fake, like the "close" button on a lift.
Many people are in the habit of pressing the "close" button because they don't have the patience to wait for the lift doors to shut. But lifts, "close" buttons are a complete scam, at least in the US-the doors will not close any faster no matter how hard you press.
It started in the 1990s when the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed in the US, making sure that all lifts stayed open long enough so that people with disabilities could enter. Only US firefighters and repairmen can use the buttons to speed up the door-closing process if they have a code or special keys.
But to normal lift riders, the buttons aren't completely useless. According to psychologists, fake buttons can actually make you feel better by offering you a sense of control.
"Perceived (能够感知的) control is very important. It reduces stress and increases well-being," Ellen J. Langer, a psychology professor, said, "Having a lack of control is associated with depression."
Experts have revealed that a lot of buttons that don't do anything exist in our lives for this same purpose. For example, many offices in the US have fake thermostats (温度调节器) because people tend to feel better when they think they can control the temperature in their workspace.
But psychologists found it interesting that even when people are aware of these little "white lies", they still continue to push fake buttons because as long as the doors eventually close, it is considered to be worth the effort.
"That habit is here to stay," John Kounios, a psychology professor, said, ''Even though I have real doubts about the traffic light buttons, I always press them. After all, I've got nothing else to do while waiting. So why not press the button in the hope that this one will work?"
8．What was the author's main purpose in writing the article?
A．To describe some different kinds of fake buttons.
B．To analyze the functions of fake buttons.
C．To explore people' different habits when it comes to pushing buttons.
D．To explain the advantages and disadvantages of fake buttons.
9．What does the underlined word "scam" mean?
A．Trick. B．Tool. C．Button. D．Scan.
10．According to John Kounios, people who press fake buttons ______.
A．don't know that what they press is fake
B．should give up this habit
C．consider what they do to be meaningless
D．probably do so to kill time
How to Turn Your Goals into Habits
First we make our habits, then our habits make us. It's such a simple concept, yet it's something we don't always do.
I believe that having ONE goal to focus on is much more powerful than having many goals. By putting the belief into practice, I have achieved a lot of personal goals over time.11．. My answer takes a little explaining. I try to turn my goals into habits, and in doing so! I put my goals on autopilot (自动化). Turning a goal into a habit means really focusing on it for at least a month. The more you can focus, the more it'll be on autopilot.12．. You'll still do it, but you only have to use minimal force to maintain it, and you can focus on your next goal or habit.